Clinical experience for HIV treatment and prevention has demonstrated that adherence to a drug regimen schedule is a significant factor in the success of the HIV treatment regime and/or prevention strategies. Effective treatment of HIV-infected individuals requires strict adherence to a multi-component regimen of antiretroviral agents taken at least daily for the remainder of a patient’s life. Non-adherence can lead to emergence of drug-resistance and loss of therapeutic effectiveness. Among people living with HIV, morbidity and mortality is increasingly driven by co-infections, such as tuberculosis (TB) and hepatitis B, where the compliance and completion of prolonged multidrug regimens are significant factors in treatment success.
Effective prevention requires that the inhibitor be present at the right time, place, and concentration to stop HIV transmission and acquisition. Although many factors (social, behavioral, and individual preference) can influence adherence, the use of drug delivery systems to provide for a longer therapeutic exposure or window of protection and/or less frequent administration may improve their consistent use, reduce dosing intervals, and potentially improve adherence to the drug regimens.
Development of safe, effective, and well-tolerated sustained release (SR)/long acting (LA) products and strategies that maintain consistent and effective drug levels in plasma and target tissues for longer periods of time is critical for successful treatment and prevention of HIV and HIV-associated co-infections.