Recent Publications

Be informed about the latest research and clinical studies being done in long-acting, extended release drugs for HIV and TB.

Ultra-long-acting removable drug delivery system for HIV treatment and prevention

Date Posted: 
Feb 13, 2019
Author(s): 
Martina Kovarova, S. Rahima Benhabbour, Ivana Massud, et al.
Citation(s): 
Nature Communicationsvolume 9, Article number: 4156 (2018)


Non-adherence to medication is an important health care problem, especially in the treatment of chronic conditions. Injectable long-acting (LA) formulations of antiretrovirals (ARVs) represent a viable alternative to improve adherence to HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention. However, the LA-ARV formulations currently in clinical trials cannot be removed after administration even if adverse events occur. Here we show an ultra-LA removable system that delivers drug for up to 9 months and can be safely removed to stop drug delivery.

Nanoencapsulation introduces long-acting phenomenon to tenofovir alafenamide and emtricitabine drug combination: A comparative pre-exposure prophylaxis efficacy study against HIV-1 vaginal transmission

Date Posted: 
Jan 28, 2019
Author(s): 
Mandal S, Kang G, Prathipati PK. et al.
Citation(s): 
J Control Release. 2019 Jan 28;294:216-225. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2018.12.027. Epub 2018 Dec 18.


Daily oral antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has proven efficacy for diverse groups of high-risk individuals. However, daily dosing regimen has augmented non-adherence. These experiments comparatively investigated the long-acting (LA) PrEP potency of subcutaneous (SubQ) administrated tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) and emtricitabine (FTC) loaded nanoparticles (NPs) to solution in humanized (hu) mice.

Predicting drug-drug interactions between rifampicin and long-acting cabotegravir and rilpivirine using PBPK modelling

Date Posted: 
Dec 19, 2018
Author(s): 
Rajoli RKR, Curley P, Chiong J, et al.
Citation(s): 
J Infect Dis. 2018 Dec 19. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy726. [Epub ahead of print]


Cabotegravir and rilpivirine are two long-acting (LA) ARVs that can be administered intramuscularly (IM); their interaction with rifampicin, a first-line anti-TB agent, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to simulate and predict DDIs between these LA ARV agents and rifampicin using PBPK modelling.

Ultra-long-acting removable drug delivery system for HIV treatment and prevention

Date Posted: 
Nov 12, 2018
Author(s): 
Kovarova M, Benhabbour SR, Massud I. et al.
Citation(s): 
Nat Commun. 2018 Oct 8;9(1):4156. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-06490-w.
Resource Subcategory: 

Non-adherence to medication is an important health care problem, especially in the treatment of chronic conditions. Injectable long-acting (LA) formulations of antiretrovirals (ARVs) represent a viable alternative to improve adherence to HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention. However, the LA-ARV formulations currently in clinical trials cannot be removed after administration even if adverse events occur. Here we show an ultra-LA removable system that delivers drug for up to 9 months and can be safely removed to stop drug delivery. 

Extended-Duration MK-8591-Eluting Implant as a Candidate for HIV Treatment and Prevention

Date Posted: 
Oct 1, 2018
Author(s): 
Barrett S.E., Teller R. S., Forster S. P, et al.
Citation(s): 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 Sep 24;62(10)
Resource Subcategory: 

Regimen adherence remains a major hurdle to the success of daily oral drug regimens for the treatment and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Long-acting drug formulations requiring less-frequent dosing offer an opportunity to improve adherence and allow for more forgiving options with regard to missed doses. The administration of long-acting formulations in a clinical setting enables health care providers to directly track adherence.

Modelling the long-acting administration of anti-tuberculosis agents using PBPK: a proof of concept study

Date Posted: 
Aug 17, 2018
Author(s): 
Rajoli, R. K. R. Podany, A. T. Moss, D. M. et al.
Citation(s): 
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2018 Aug 1;22(8):937-944


SETTING: Anti-tuberculosis formulations necessitate uninterrupted treatment to cure tuberculosis (TB), but are characterised by suboptimal adherence, which jeopardises therapeutic efficacy. Long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations or implants could address these associated issues.

OBJECTIVE: niazid, rifapentine, bedaquiline and delamanid—in adults for treatment for latent tuberculous infection (LTBI).

Long-acting injectables for tuberculosis prophylaxis and treatment: is now the time?

Date Posted: 
Aug 17, 2018
Author(s): 
Dooley, K E.
Citation(s): 
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2018 Aug 1; 22(8):833–834


TUBERCULOSIS (TB) is a wily and enduring foe, responsible for 1 billion deaths in the last 200 years. With the introduction of antibiotics active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the 1950s, TB disease could finally be cured with multidrug therapy. TB drugs must still be given for months, generally via directly observed therapy, which is intrusive, expensive, and inconvenient.

Recent developments of nanotherapeutics for targeted and long-acting, combination HIV chemotherapy

Date Posted: 
Aug 14, 2018
Author(s): 
Kraft JC, Treuting PM, Ho RJY
Citation(s): 
J Drug Target. 2018 Jun - Jul;26(5-6):494-504.


​The distributed network of lymph vessels and nodes in the body, with its complex architecture and physiology, presents a major challenge for whole-body lymphatic-targeted drug delivery. To gather physiological and pathological information of the lymphatics, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging of NIR fluorophores is used in clinical practice due to its tissue-penetrating optical radiation (700-900 nm) that safely provides real-time high-resolution in vivo images.

Mechanism-based pharmacokinetic (MBPK) models describe the complex plasma kinetics of three antiretrovirals delivered by a long-acting anti-HIV drug combination nanoparticle formulation.

Author(s): 
Kraft JC, Treuting PM, Ho RJY
Citation(s): 
J Drug Target. 2018 Jun - Jul;26(5-6):494-504. doi: 10.1080/1061186X.2018.1433681. Epub 2018 Feb 12.


​The distributed network of lymph vessels and nodes in the body, with its complex architecture and physiology, presents a major challenge for whole-body lymphatic-targeted drug delivery. To gather physiological and pathological information of the lymphatics, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging of NIR fluorophores is used in clinical practice due to its tissue-penetrating optical radiation (700-900 nm) that safely provides real-time high-resolution in vivo images.

Translation of combination nanodrugs into nanomedicines: lessons learned and future outlook.

Author(s): 
Kraft JC, Treuting PM, Ho RJY
Citation(s): 
J Drug Target. 2018 Jun - Jul;26(5-6):494-504. doi: 10.1080/1061186X.2018.1433681. Epub 2018 Feb 12.

The distributed network of lymph vessels and nodes in the body, with its complex architecture and physiology, presents a major challenge for whole-body lymphatic-targeted drug delivery. To gather physiological and pathological information of the lymphatics, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging of NIR fluorophores is used in clinical practice due to its tissue-penetrating optical radiation (700-900 nm) that safely provides real-time high-resolution in vivo images. However, indocyanine green (ICG), a common clinical NIR fluorophore, is unstable in aqueous environments and under light exposure, and its poor lymphatic distribution and retention limits its use as a NIR lymphatic tracer. 

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