Recent Publications - HIV

Long-acting profile of 4 drugs in 1 anti-HIV nanosuspension in nonhuman primates for 5 weeks after a single subcutaneous injection

Date: 
7/15/18
Citation: 

McConnachie LA, Kinman LM, Koehn J, et al. Long-acting profile of 4 drugs in 1 anti-HIV nanosuspension in nonhuman primates for 5 weeks after a single subcutaneous injection. J Pharm Sci. 2018 Jul;107(7):1787-1790. doi: 10.1016/j.xphs.2018.03.005. Epub 2018 Mar 13. PMID: 29548975; PMCID: PMC6954863.

Daily oral antiretroviral therapy regimens produce limited drug exposure in tissues where residual HIV persists and suffer from poor patient adherence and disparate drug kinetics, which all negatively impact outcomes. To address this, we developed a tissue- and cell-targeted long-acting 4-in-1 nanosuspension composed of lopinavir (LPV), ritonavir, tenofovir (TFV), and lamivudine (3TC). In 4 macaques dosed subcutaneously, drug levels over 5 weeks in plasma, lymph node mononuclear cells (LNMCs), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. 

Health Topics: 

Long-acting formulations for the treatment of latent tuberculous infection: opportunities and challenges

Date: 
2/15/18
Citation: 

Swindells S, Siccardi M, Barrett SE, et al. Long-acting formulations for the treatment of latent tuberculous infection: opportunities and challenges. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2018 Feb 1; 22(2): 125–132. PMID: 29506608; PMCID: PMC6103451.

Long-acting/extended-release drug formulations have proved very successful in diverse areas of medicine, including contraception, psychiatry and, most recently, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Though challenging, application of this technology to anti-tuberculosis treatment could have substantial impact. 

Indocyanine green nanoparticles undergo selective lymphatic uptake, distribution and retention and enable detailed mapping of lymph vessels, nodes and abnormalities

Date: 
2/12/18
Citation: 

Kraft JC, Treuting PM, Ho RJY. Indocyanine green nanoparticles undergo selective lymphatic uptake, distribution and retention and enable detailed mapping of lymph vessels, nodes and abnormalities. J Drug Target. 2018 Jun-Jul;26(5-6):494-504. doi: 10.1080/1061186X.2018.1433681. Epub 2018 Feb 12. PMID: 29388438 PMCID: PMC6205717

The distributed network of lymph vessels and nodes in the body, with its complex architecture and physiology, presents a major challenge for whole-body lymphatic-targeted drug delivery. To gather physiological and pathological information of the lymphatics, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging of NIR fluorophores is used in clinical practice due to its tissue-penetrating optical radiation (700-900 nm) that safely provides real-time high-resolution in vivo images. 

Health Topics: 

Mechanism-based pharmacokinetic (MBPK) models describe the complex plasma kinetics of three antiretrovirals delivered by a long-acting anti-HIV drug combination nanoparticle formulation.

Date: 
2/12/18
Citation: 

Kraft JC, Treuting PM, Ho RJY. Mechanism-based pharmacokinetic (MBPK) models describe the complex plasma kinetics of three antiretrovirals delivered by a long-acting anti-HIV drug combination nanoparticle formulation. J Control Release. 2018 Apr 10;275:229-241. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2018.02.003. Epub 2018 Feb 10. PMID: 29432823; PMCID: PMC5878144.

Existing oral antiretroviral (ARV) agents have been shown in human studies to exhibit limited lymph node penetration and lymphatic drug insufficiency. As lymph nodes are a reservoir of HIV, it is critical to deliver and sustain effective levels of ARV combinations in these tissues. To overcome lymph node drug insufficiency of oral combination ARV therapy (cART), we developed and reported a long-acting and lymphocyte-targeting injectable that contains three ARVs-hydrophobic lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV), and hydrophilic tenofovir (TFV)-stabilized by lipid excipients in a nanosuspension.

Creation of a nanoformulated cabotegravir prodrug with improved antiretroviral profiles

Date: 
1/15/18
Citation: 

Zhou T, Su H, Dash P, et al. Creation of a nanoformulated cabotegravir prodrug with improved antiretroviral profiles. Biomaterials. 2018;151:53-65. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2017.10.023. PMID: 29059541; PMCID: PMC5926202.

Long-acting parenteral (LAP) antiretroviral drugs have generated considerable interest for treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection. One new LAP is cabotegravir (CAB), a highly potent integrase inhibitor, with a half-life of up to 54 days, allowing for every other month parenteral administrations. Despite this excellent profile, high volume dosing, injection site reactions and low body fluid drug concentrations affect broad use for virus infected and susceptible people.

Translation of combination nanodrugs into nanomedicines: lessons learned and future outlook

Date: 
1/10/18
Citation: 

Mu Q, Yu J, McConnachie LA Kraft JC, Gao Y, Gulati GK, Ho RJY. Translation of combination nanodrugs into nanomedicines: lessons learned and future outlook. J Drug Target. Jun-Jul 2018;26(5-6):435-447. doi: 10.1080/1061186X.2017.1419363. Epub 2018 Jan 10. PMID: 29285948; PMCID: PMC6205718.

For the past two decades, the number of research publications on single-agent nanoformulations has grown exponentially. However, formulations advancing to pre-clinical and clinical evaluations that lead to therapeutic products has been limited.

Health Topics: 

Development of an oral once-weekly drug delivery system for HIV antiretroviral therapy

Date: 
1/9/18
Citation: 

Kirtane AR, Abouzid O, Minahan D, et al. Development of an oral once-weekly drug delivery system for HIV antiretroviral therapy. Nat Commun. 2018;9(1):2. Published 2018 Jan 9. doi:10.1038/s41467-017-02294-6. PMID: 29317618; PMCID: PMC5760734.

The efficacy of antiretroviral therapy is significantly compromised by medication non-adherence. Long-acting enteral systems that can ease the burden of daily adherence have not yet been developed.

Health Topics: 

Multimodal imaging approach to examine biodistribution kinetics of Cabotegravir (GSK1265744) long acting parenteral formulation in rat

Date: 
12/28/17
Citation: 

Jucker BM, Alsaid H, Rambo M, et al. Multimodal imaging approach to examine biodistribution kinetics of Cabotegravir (GSK1265744) long acting parenteral formulation in rat. J Control Release. 2017;268:102-112. doi:10.1016/j.jconrel.2017.10.017. PMID: 29042321.

Long-Acting Parenterals (LAPs) have been used in the clinic to provide sustained therapeutic drug levels at a target site, and thereby reducing the frequency of dosing required. In an effort to understand the factors associated with long-acting cabotegravir (GSK1265744 LAP) pharmacokinetic variability, the current study was designed to investigate the temporal relationship between intramuscular (IM) or subcutaneous (SC) drug depot morphology and distribution kinetics with plasma pharmacokinetics.

From in silico hit to long-acting late-stage preclinical candidate to combat HIV-1 infection

Date: 
12/26/17
Citation: 

Kudalkar SN, Beloor J, Quijano E, et al. From in silico hit to long-acting late-stage preclinical candidate to combat HIV-1 infection [published correction appears in Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Mar 12;:]. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115(4):E802-E811. doi:10.1073/pnas.1717932115. PMID: 29279368; PMCID: PMC5789948.

Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) that target the viral polymerase have been a key component of the current HIV-1 combination drug regimens; however, these issues hamper them. Thus, the development of novel more effective NNRTIs as anti-HIV-1 agents with fewer long-term liabilities, efficacy on new drug-resistant HIV-1 strains, and less frequent dosing is crucial.

Health Topics: 

Long-acting intramuscular cabotegravir and rilpivirine in adults with HIV-1 infection (LATTE-2): 96-week results of a randomised, open-label, phase 2b, non-inferiority trial

Date: 
9/23/17
Citation: 

Margolis DA, Gonzalez-Garcia J, Stellbrink HJ, et al. Long-acting intramuscular cabotegravir and rilpivirine in adults with HIV-1 infection (LATTE-2): 96-week results of a randomised, open-label, phase 2b, non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2017;390(10101):1499-1510. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31917-7. PMID: 28750935.

The two-drug combination of all-injectable, long-acting cabotegravir plus rilpivirine every 4 weeks or every 8 weeks was as effective as daily three-drug oral therapy at maintaining HIV-1 viral suppression through 96 weeks and was well accepted and tolerated.

Pages