Owen A, Rannard S. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges for long acting injectable therapies: Insights for applications in HIV therapy. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2016;103:144-156. doi:10.1016/j.addr.2016.02.003. PMID: 26916628; PMCID: PMC4935562.
Many terms have been utilised to describe the LA approach and standardisation would be beneficial. Ultimately, definitions will depend upon specific indications and routes of delivery, but for HIV we propose benchmarks that reflect perceived clinical benefits and available data on patient attitudes. Specifically, we propose dosing intervals of ≥ 1 week, ≥ 1 month or ≥ 6 months, for oral, injectable or implantable strategies, respectively. This review focuses upon the critical importance of potency in achieving the LA outcome for injectable formulations and explores established and emerging technologies that have been employed across indications.
Key technological challenges such as the need for consistency and ease of administration for drug combinations, are also discussed. Finally, the review explores the gaps in knowledge regarding the pharmacology of drug release from particulate-based LA injectable suspensions.