C. Orkin, K. Arasteh, M. Górgolas Hernández‑Mora, V. Pokrovsky, E.T. Overton, P.‑M. Girard, S. Oka, S. Walmsley, C. Bettacchi, C. Brinson, P. Philibert, J. Lombaard, M. St. Clair, H. Crauwels, S.L. Ford, P. Patel, V. Chounta, R. D’Amico, S. Vanveggel, D. Dorey, A. Cutrell, S. Griffith, D.A. Margolis, P.E. Williams, W. Parys, K.Y. Smith, and W.R. Spreen. Long-Acting Cabotegravir and Rilpivirine after Oral Induction for HIV-1 Infection. N Engl J Med 2020;382:1124-35.DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1909512
This study assessed whether switching to monthly injections of long-acting cabotegravir plus rilpivirine would be noninferior to continuing oral therapy in patients with HIV type 1 (HIV-1) who had viral suppression in response to oral induction therapy.
This study consisted of a phase 3, randomized, open-label trial in which adults with HIV-1 infection who had not previously received antiretroviral therapy were given 20 weeks of daily oral induction therapy with dolutegravir–abacavir–lamivudine. Participants who had an HIV-1 RNA level of less than 50 copies per milliliter after 16 weeks were randomly assigned (1:1) to continue the current oral therapy or switch to oral cabotegravir plus rilpivirine for 1 month followed by monthly injections of long-acting cabotegravir plus rilpivirine. The primary end point was the percentage of participants who had an HIV-1 RNA level of 50 copies per milliliter or higher at week 48 (Food and Drug Administration snapshot algorithm).
Therapy with long-acting cabotegravir plus rilpivirine was noninferior to oral therapy with dolutegravir–abacavir–lamivudine with regard to maintaining HIV-1 suppression. Injection-site reactions were common.